Annular Gas Flow
- A flow of formation gas in the annulus between a casing string and the borehole wall. Annular gas flows occur when there is insufficient hydrostatic pressure to restrain the gas. They can occur in uncemented intervals and even in cemented sections if the cement bond is poor. After cementing, as the cement begins to harden, a gel-like structure forms that effectively supports the solid material in the cement slurry. However, during this initial gelling period, the cement has no appreciable strength. Hence, with the solid (weighting) material now supported by the gel structure, the effective density of the slurry that the reservoir experiences falls rather suddenly to the density of the mix water of the cement, which is usually fresh water, whose density is 8.34 lbm/gal, or a gradient of 0.434 psi/ft of vertical column height. Various chemical additives have been developed to reduce annular gas flow.