Crude oil with high viscosity (typically above 10 cp), and high specific gravity. The API classifies heavy oil as crudes with a gravity below 22.3° API. In addition to high viscosity and high specific gravity, heavy oils typically have low hydrogen-to-carbon ratios, high asphaltene, sulfur, nitrogen, and heavy-metal content, as well as higher acid numbers.

Related Terms:

crude oil
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flocculation
high temperature completions
viscous oil